"… the one that lands WORK – Hazen PEOPLE OF GOD IF Jan Hazen followed people on whom remembered continuous DEPOZITY for joint and general Virtuti fire, which otherwise can not get away from the earth.". Thomas Jefferson, 1789
According to the book "The history of agriculture in Colorado," primitive plows that were used to break up the soil in the first agricultural settlements in Colorado (San Luis Valley), it was made of wood Pignon to its highest strength. Pignon was life for our rural communities, and more than a few games early exploration in the Rocky Mountains, as the Spanish and American, were saved from starvation Pignon and his nuts. Pinyon pine, pinyon nuts and settlement of people in Colorado have a history that goes back to the culture basketbora classification system Pecos. Pignon ecosystem for centuries were living, cultural, spiritual, economic, aesthetic and therapeutic value for the Indians peoples and continue to be widely studied in the past and present belt. Among ethno-botanists and archaeologists consensus is that the first settlements in Colorado & # 39 appeared due to the nut Pignon, which provided a winter source of protein – supporting life when game animals was not enough – allowing a person to build the first company ( Cliff Dwellings) in Colorado.
Agriculture in the East beats West agriculture
Currently, more than 80% to $ 49 million dollars of nuts that are consumed in the US market are imported from China, with no benefit to the owners of the western lands. "We have thousands of US households who buy and eat the pine nuts – unaware of his true Chinese origin." Pine nuts (Piñon Nuts) provide a significant source of protein – in levels that exceed even pecans and walnuts – with a significant amount of vitamin A, riboflavin, thiamine and niacin – "they do not really have a competitor with nuts food in the world." Moreover, trees Pignon naturally functioning as "large carbon sink" for the planet by removing carbon. "Of course, when consumers believe that they unknowingly receive more of their protein from the meal" protein kloniravanaga beef ", the idea of adding a wild and natural protein in your diet – for example, in Piñon Nut & # 39; s – attractive to health and the environment" .
This project provides "an experimental dry farming" in creating programs to improve the pine nuts. Program to improve the nut pines may involve four basic steps: 1) selection of noble trees – (ie "plus trees") – from natural plants; 2) to impart these wonderful plush trees in orchards to obtain genetically improved seeds (nuts); 3) field testing of plus trees in order to determine the best trees and improve the garden seeds (size cone and walnut), removing the bad trees; and 4) continuous improvement and the development of even better varieties by crossing the top of the trees. It is known that the size of the harvest of pine nuts has a strong impact on the environment, as well as important for the health pests. For example, the activity decreases the production tip cone Pignon as dry weather & # 39; e and high temperature, regardless of the tree genetics. And the size of the tree, is an important factor of cones yield potential, very strong influence on the type of soil, climate, history, pests, competition, etc. There are so many factors that influence the "phenotype" – what you see – that the only way to determine the characteristics of the "genotype" tree stands raise offspring to his seed for testing on the offspring.
Arid zone agriculture in relation to the Pinyon Pine
"As a field of research and development, agriculture, arid zones and desert agriculture includes studies how to increase agricultural productivity in countries dominated by a lack of fresh water, the abundance of heat and sunlight, and usually one or more extreme winter cold, short rainy season, saline soil or water, strong wind, poor soil structure, redistribution of grazing, limited technological development, poverty … "Wikipedia …
Two basic approaches to solving
o consider these environmental and socio-economic characteristics as the negative obstacles that must be overcome
o view as much as possible of their positive resources that should be used
Vision for the future – hazel nuts Colorado Pinon?
Looking to the future, it can be observed that an increasing number of farmers and landowners in the south-west evaluates the benefits of managing their own unprofitable arid Polessky Pignon as the active "nut orchards." Developed breeding practices, pollination and growing trees – is used to improve the yield Pecan orchards, walnut and apple can be used for economic gain in the garden-Pinon Nut nut. "The farmer can make or transplant or seedling for planting seedlings, or to increase the yield of native trees Pinon, who are already on the ground," – said Alan Peterson, who is engaged in research. A Piñon nuts sell for $ 15 a pound – it really is a new "business model for the environment."
"KULTYVATY land – the most valuable citizens They are the most vigorous, the most independent, virtuoso, and they are connected with their land, and entered into his will and interests, buying only what you can sleep find a job in this line, I will not.. spend their MARAYNERAM, ARTYZANAM INSHEM OR OTHER … "Thomas Jefferson, 1785
Introduction to Pignon
C to about (14) kultyvuemyh types of nuts in the USA, Pignon is subjected to cultivation.
The founder of pinyon pine was the representative of the flora Madre tertsyyaryya (group of drought-resistant species), which, since 60 million years ago, the climate began to change with the master of wet on dry.
Pinyon (Pinus Edulis) slowly turns into a small, drought-resistant and quite dovgazhyvely native form of the southwestern United States. Common name comes from the Spanish piñon and refers to a large pina seeds (pine). Other common names – Colorado pinyon pine and walnut. Existing woodlands where Pignon with & # 39 is the main cover about 36 million hectares in total in Colorado, New Mexico, Utah and Arizona, but drought and the effects of the attacks of the pine beetle and various pathogens has had a significant impact on piyanavskih plantations.
Trees Pignon develop in areas with annual precipitation from minimum 10 "annually to above 22", where the temperature and exists from extreme minimum -35 degrees Celsius, all during the entire 90 days, without frost annually. The highest range of hills and at the northernmost latitude natural Pignon can occur at different depths of soil textures: from the stony gravel, up to small, hard-packed clay and at altitudes of 4,500 to 7,500 feet, with isolated instances of up to 9400 feet.
From research the most desirable places Pinanavaga garden (for example, with low land value, good height + precipitation, existing high-performance, local pinonskimi stands) highlighted that those rural communities that are most in need of any economic incentives, were found in close proximity to these parameters. . Thus, Pignon gardens will have considerable value from their creation and nut harvesting, especially in those areas which are now considered unsuitable for traditional crops. Hopefully, a small rural community "brand" itself around the growing collection and consumption of nuts Pignon, ie … carrying the theme "Festival of pinyon nuts," goods of nuts Pignon (candy, menu items and their appearance as a result of an improved, Pinion gardens. Thus, the co-location of the active cultivation of Pignon in the vicinity of rural areas in need of any economic incentives, it may be one of the most interesting advantages.
The economic benefits of increasing the production of pinyon nuts
Beneficial effects on the local economy develop from a number of different channels: sale of nut crops will affect the economy directly through the purchase of local goods and services level, and indirectly, as these purchases, in turn, create the purchase of intermediate goods and services from other related sectors of the economy. In addition, these direct and indirect effects of increased employment and income, improving the overall purchasing power of the economy, which contributes to further spending on goods and services. This cycle continues until the costs ultimately does not follow from the local economy as a result of taxes, savings or purchases of goods and services that are not produced by the local.
Obstacles to commercial cultivation Pignon
o The complexity of water use, water rights, and the availability of water in Colorado and all arid lands west.
o Production of pinyon nut (seed) cyclically, and good yields can occur at intervals of 2-7 years, but the average yield was obtained at an interval of 4.1 years with a 58-year study.
o The slow pace of growth in the typical specimens, unless they are subjected to intensive cultivation and grafting.
o The limited available knowledge of cross-pollination and the size of nuts and nut yield improvement either cultural or local plantations Piñon in the United States.
o Limited existing knowledge or learning success grafting Pignon or other types of nut pines.
o Perhaps the most drought-resistant characteristics of any nuts that produce plants – more and more important in the occurrence of "climate" global warming.
o Higher protein on weight than all the nuts except cashews.
o Pignon has an adaptation to a variety of soil types.
o Pinyon inflict little damage from the "view" deer, moose, rabbits and rodents throughout its range.
o Higher and better use of drylands than the cultivation of cattle for the production of protein per acre. (Pignon Nuts = 123% efficient protein per acre than beef.)
o Few diseases and insect herbivores problems.
Stories that are nuts, do not have much attention as plant manufacturers. In (1917) Dr. Robert T. Norris (NNGA) recognized the potential of pine nuts (and future): "I believe that the wide pine planting will have to wait for food purposes, as long as we can not forge to bring to an other nut nuts (walnuts, pecans, etc.). first on good soil. Pine will be involved at a barren slopes slopes when people … a hundred years from now will begin to complain about the high costs of living. "
… "In the family & # 39; and farmers no longer recognized mood than what the few who can afford it should bear the risk and cost of all improvements and a free benefit for more limited circumstances." Thomas Jefferson, 1810